Countries » Europe » San Marino

San Marino



Geographically the third smallest state in Europe (after the Holy See and Monaco), San Marino also claims to be the world’s oldest republic. According to tradition, it was founded by a Christian stonemason named Marinus in A.D. 301. San Marino’s foreign policy is aligned with that of the European Union, although it is not a member; social and political trends in the republic track closely with those of its larger neighbor, Italy.


Southern Europe, an enclave in central Italy

Geographic coordinates:
43 46 N, 12 25 E

Map references:

total: 61 sq km
country comparison to the world: 229
land: 61 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area – comparative:
about one third times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
total: 39 km
border countries: Italy 39 km

0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)

Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers

rugged mountains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Torrente Ausa 55 m
highest point: Monte Titano 755 m

Natural resources:
building stone

Land use:
arable land: 16.67%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 83.33% (2011)

Irrigated land:

Natural hazards:

Environment – current issues:
air pollution; urbanization decreasing rural farmlands

Environment – international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution

Geography – note:
landlocked; smallest independent state in Europe after the Holy See and Monaco; dominated by the Apennines

People and Society

noun: Sammarinese (singular and plural)
adjective: Sammarinese

Ethnic groups:
Sammarinese, Italian


Roman Catholic

32,448 (July 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 214

Age structure:
0-14 years: 16.2% (male 2,799/female 2,461)
15-24 years: 10.6% (male 1,749/female 1,679)
25-54 years: 42.8% (male 6,575/female 7,327)
55-64 years: 11.8% (male 1,926/female 1,919)
65 years and over: 18.5% (male 2,680/female 3,333) (2013 est.)

population pyramid:
SM_popgraph 2013

Median age:
total: 43.2 years
male: 42.3 years
female: 44 years (2013 est.)

Population growth rate:
0.93% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 123

Birth rate:
8.78 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 213

Death rate:
8.17 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 93

Net migration rate:
8.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14

urban population: 94% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 0.6% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.1 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.14 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2013 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
total: 4.58 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 185
male: 4.77 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.38 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 83.12 years
country comparison to the world: 5
male: 80.59 years
female: 85.88 years (2013 est.)

Total fertility rate:
1.48 children born/woman (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 192

Health expenditures:
7.1% of GDP (2010)
country comparison to the world: 78

HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate:

HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS:

HIV/AIDS – deaths:

Education expenditures:

definition: age 10 and over can read and write
total population: 96%
male: 97%
female: 95%


Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of San Marino
conventional short form: San Marino
local long form: Repubblica di San Marino
local short form: San Marino

Government type:

name: San Marino
geographic coordinates: 43 56 N, 12 25 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:
9 municipalities (castelli, singular – castello); Acquaviva, Borgo Maggiore, Chiesanuova, Domagnano, Faetano, Fiorentino, Montegiardino, San Marino Citta, Serravalle

3 September 301

National holiday:
Founding of the Republic, 3 September (A.D. 301)

8 October 1600; electoral law of 1926 serves some of the functions of a constitution

Legal system:
civil law system with Italian civil law influences

International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Co-chiefs of State Captain Regent Antonella MULARONI and Captain Regent Denis AMICI (for the period 1 April-31 October 2013)
head of government: Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs Pasquale VALENTINI (since 5 December 2012)
cabinet: Congress of State elected by the Great and General Council for a five-year term
(For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
elections: co-chiefs of state (captains regent) elected by the Grand and General Council for a six-month term; election last held on 17 Septermber 2012 (next to be held in March 2013); secretary of state for foreign and political affairs elected by the Grand and General Council for a five-year term; election last held on 11 November 2012 (next to be held by November 2017)
election results: Antonella MULARONI and Denis AMICI elected captains regent; percent of legislative vote – NA; Pasquale VALENTINI elected secretary of state for foreign and political affairs; percent of legislative vote – NA
note: the popularly elected parliament (Grand and General Council) selects two of its members to serve as the captains regent (co-chiefs of state) for a six-month period; they preside over meetings of the Grand and General Council and its cabinet (Congress of State), which has nine other members, all are selected by the Grand and General Council; assisting the captains regent are nine secretaries of state; the secretary of state for Foreign Affairs has assumed some prime ministerial roles

Legislative branch:
unicameral Grand and General Council or Consiglio Grande e Generale (60 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held on 11 November 2012 (next to be held by November 2017)
election results: percent of vote by party – San Marino Common Good coalition (San Marino Bene Comune) 50.7% (PDCS 29.5%, PSD 14.3%, AP 6.7%), Entente for the Country coalition (Intesa per Il Paese) 22.3% (PS 12.1%, UPR 8.4%, USDM 1.7%), Active Citizenry coalition (Cittadinanza Attiva) 16.1% (SU 9.1%, Civic 10 6.7%), Civic Movement R.E.T.E. 6.3%, For San Marino 2.8%, San Marino 3.0 1.8%; seats by party – San Marino Common Good coalition 35 (PDCS 21, PSD 10, AP 4), Entente for the Country coalition 12 (PS 7, UPR 5), Active Citizenry 9 (SU 5, Civic 10 4), Civic Movement R.E.T.E. 4

Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Council of Twelve or Consiglio dei XII (consists of 12 members)
note – the College of Guarantors for the Constitutionality and General Norms functions as San Marino’s constitutional court
judge selection and term of office: judges elected by the Grand and General Council from among its own to serve 5-year terms
subordinate courts: first instance and first appeal criminal, administrative, and civil courts; justices of the peace or conciliatory judges

Political parties and leaders:
San Marino Common Good:
Christian Democrats or PDCS [Marco GATTI] Party of Socialists and Democrats or PSD [Gerardo GIOVAGNOLI] Popular Alliance or AP [Stefano PALMIERI] Entente for the Country:
Socialist Party or PS [Augusto CASALI] Union for the Republic or UPR [Giovanni LONFERNINI] Sammarinese Union of Moderates or USDM [Romeo MORRI and Glauco SANSOVINI] Active Citizenship:
United Left or SU [Alessandro ROSSI] Civic 10 [Mateo CIACCI] other:
Civic Movement R.E.T.E. (Network) [Grazia ZAFFERANI] For San Marino [Emilio DELLA BALDA] San Marino 3.0 [Simone DELLA VALLE]

Political pressure groups and leaders:

International organization participation:
CE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), OPCW, OSCE, Schengen Convention (de facto member), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WHO, WIPO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Paolo RONDELLI
chancery: 1711 N Street NW, 2nd floor, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: 202-223-2418
FAX: 202-223-2748

Diplomatic representation from the US:
the US does not have an embassy in San Marino; the ambassador to Italy is accredited to San Marino

Flag description:
two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and light blue with the national coat of arms superimposed in the center; the main colors derive from the shield of the coat of arms, which features three white towers on three peaks on a blue field; the towers represent three castles built on San Marino’s highest feature, Mount Titano: Guaita, Cesta, and Montale; the coat of arms is flanked by a wreath, below a crown and above a scroll bearing the word LIBERTAS (Liberty); the white and blue colors are also said to stand for peace and liberty respectively

National symbol(s):
three peaks each displaying a tower

National anthem:
name: “Inno Nazionale della Repubblica” (National Anthem of the Republic)
lyrics/music: none/Federico CONSOLO
note: adopted 1894; the music for the lyric-less anthem is based on a 10th century chorale piece


Economy – overview:
San Marino’s economy relies heavily on tourism, the banking industry and the manufacture and export of ceramics, clothing, fabrics, furniture, paints, spirits, tiles, and wine. The manufacturing and financial sectors account for more than half of San Marino’s GDP. The per capita level of output and standard of living are comparable to those of the most prosperous regions of Italy. The economy benefits from foreign investment due to its relatively low corporate taxes and low taxes on interest earnings. The income tax rate is also very low, about one-third the average EU level. San Marino does not issue public debt securities; when necessary, it finances deficits by drawing down central bank deposits. San Marino”s economy has encountered five years of GDP contraction, largely due to weakened demand from Italy – which accounts for 90% of its export market – and financial sector consolidation. Difficulties in the banking sector, the recent global economic downturn, and the sizeable decline in tax revenues have contributed to negative real GDP growth. The government has adopted measures to counter the economic downturn, including subsidized credit to businesses. For the first time since 2009, there were signs of improvements in the financial sector in the third quarter of 2012. San Marino continues to work towards harmonizing its fiscal laws with EU and international standards. In September 2009, the OECD removed San Marino from its list of tax havens that have yet to fully adopt global tax standards, and in 2010 San Marino signed Tax Information Exchange Agreements with most major countries. San Marino’s Government continues to work with Italy to ratify a financial information exchange agreement, seen by businesses and investors as crucial to strengthening the economic relationship between the two countries.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$1.371 billion (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 199
$1.429 billion (2011 est.)
$1.465 billion (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$1.855 billion (2012 est.)

GDP – real growth rate:
-4% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 215
-2.5% (2011 est.)
-7.5% (2010 est.)

GDP – per capita (PPP):
$36,200 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 39
$41,900 (2007)

GDP – composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 0.1%
industry: 39.2%
services: 60.7% (2009)

Agriculture – products:
wheat, grapes, corn, olives; cattle, pigs, horses, beef, cheese, hides

tourism, banking, textiles, electronics, ceramics, cement, wine

Industrial production growth rate:
2.3% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 94

Labor force:
21,830 (December 2012)
country comparison to the world: 209

Labor force – by occupation:
agriculture: 0.1%
industry: 34.4%
services: 65.5% (2010 est.)

Unemployment rate:
7% (2012)
country comparison to the world: 79
5.5% (2011)

Population below poverty line:

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

revenues: $667.7 million
expenditures: $694.7 million (2011)

Taxes and other revenues:
36% of GDP (2011)
country comparison to the world: 62

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-1.5% of GDP (2011)
country comparison to the world: 71

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.5% (2012)
country comparison to the world: 63
3.1% (December 2011)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
5.92% (31 December 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 153
5.38% (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of narrow money:
$1.326 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of broad money:
$4.584 billion (31 December 2007)
country comparison to the world: 131

Stock of domestic credit:
$8.822 billion (30 September 2010)
country comparison to the world: 103
$8.008 billion (31 December 2009)

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$3.827 billion (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 124
$2.576 billion (2010 est.)

Exports – commodities:
building stone, lime, wood, chestnuts, wheat, wine, baked goods, hides, ceramics

$2.551 billion (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 155
$2.132 billion (2010 est.)

Imports – commodities:
wide variety of consumer manufactures, food, energy

Debt – external:

Exchange rates:
euros (EUR) per US dollar –
0.7778 (2012 est.)
0.7185 (2011 est.)
0.755 (2010 est.)
0.7198 (2009 est.)
0.6827 (2008 est.)


Telephones – main lines in use:
18,700 (2011)
country comparison to the world: 192

Telephones – mobile cellular:
35,500 (2011)
country comparison to the world: 204

Telephone system:
general assessment: automatic telephone system completely integrated into Italian system
domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity 170 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code – 378; connected to Italian international network (2011)

Broadcast media:
state-owned public broadcaster operates 1 TV station and 3 radio stations; receives radio and TV broadcasts from Italy (2012)

Internet country code:

Internet hosts:
11,015 (2012)
country comparison to the world: 133

Internet users:
17,000 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 195


total: 292 km
country comparison to the world: 205
paved: 292 km (2006)


Military branches:
no regular military forces; voluntary Military Corps (Corpi Militari) performs ceremonial duties and limited police support functions (2010)

Military service age and obligation:
18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription; government has the authority to call up all San Marino citizens from 16-60 years of age to service in the military (2012)

Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 6,892 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 5,565
females age 16-49: 6,067 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 186
female: 166 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

Military – note:
defense is the responsibility of Italy

Transnational Issues

Disputes – international:

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