Countries » Africa » Sudan




Military regimes favoring Islamic-oriented governments have dominated national politics since independence from the UK in 1956. Sudan was embroiled in two prolonged civil wars during most of the remainder of the 20th century. These conflicts were rooted in northern economic, political, and social domination of largely non-Muslim, non-Arab southern Sudanese. The first civil war ended in 1972 but broke out again in 1983. The second war and famine-related effects resulted in more than four million people displaced and, according to rebel estimates, more than two million deaths over a period of two decades. Peace talks gained momentum in 2002-04 with the signing of several accords. The final North/South Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), signed in January 2005, granted the southern rebels autonomy for six years followed by a referendum on independence for Southern Sudan. The referendum was held in January 2011 and indicated overwhelming support for independence. South Sudan became independent on 9 July 2011. Since southern independence Sudan has been combating rebels from the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N) in Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile states. A separate conflict, which broke out in the western region of Darfur in 2003, has displaced nearly two million people and caused an estimated 200,000 to 400,000 deaths. The UN took command of the Darfur peacekeeping operation from the African Union in December 2007. Peacekeeping troops have struggled to stabilize the situation, which has become increasingly regional in scope and has brought instability to eastern Chad. Sudan also has faced large refugee influxes from neighboring countries primarily Ethiopia and Chad. Armed conflict, poor transport infrastructure, and lack of government support have chronically obstructed the provision of humanitarian assistance to affected populations.


north-eastern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Egypt and Eritrea

Geographic coordinates:
15 00 N, 30 00 E

Map references:

total: 1,861,484 sq km
country comparison to the world: 16
land: NA
water: NA

Area – comparative:
slightly less than one-fifth the size of the US

Land boundaries:
total: 6,751 km
border countries: Central African Republic 175 km, Chad 1,360 km, Egypt 1,275 km, Eritrea 605 km, Ethiopia 769 km, Libya 383 km, South Sudan 2,184 km
note: Sudan-South Sudan boundary represents 1 January 1956 alignment; final alignment pending negotiations and demarcation; final sovereignty status of Abyei region pending negotiations between Sudan and South Sudan

853 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 18 nm
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation

hot and dry; arid desert; rainy season varies by region (April to November)

generally flat, featureless plain; desert dominates the north

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Red Sea 0 m
highest point: Jabal Marrah 3,071 m

Natural resources:
petroleum; small reserves of iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold; hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 6.76%
permanent crops: 0.07%
other: 93.17% (2011)

Irrigated land:
18,900 sq km (2010)

Total renewable water resources:
64.5 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 27.59 cu km/yr (4%/1%/95%)
per capita: 683.4 cu m/yr (2005)

Natural hazards:
dust storms and periodic persistent droughts

Environment – current issues:
inadequate supplies of potable water; wildlife populations threatened by excessive hunting; soil erosion; desertification; periodic drought

Environment – international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography – note:
dominated by the Nile and its tributaries

People and Society

noun: Sudanese (singular and plural)
adjective: Sudanese

Ethnic groups:
Sudanese Arab (approximately 70%), Fur, Beja, Nuba, Fallata

Arabic (official), English (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, Fur
note: program of “Arabization” in process

Sunni Muslim, small Christian minority

country comparison to the world: 35

Age structure:
0-14 years: 41.4% (male 7,337,924/female 7,104,702)
15-24 years: 20% (male 3,596,729/female 3,376,682)
25-54 years: 31.4% (male 5,316,659/female 5,639,494)
55-64 years: 3.8% (male 711,596/female 620,962)
65 years and over: 3.3% (male 629,312/female 513,850) (2013 est.)

population pyramid:
SU_popgraph 2013

Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 79.9 %
youth dependency ratio: 74.1 %
elderly dependency ratio: 5.8 %
potential support ratio: 17.1 (2013)

Median age:
total: 18.9 years
male: 18.6 years
female: 19.1 years (2013 est.)

Population growth rate:
1.83% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 65

Birth rate:
30.84 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 42

Death rate:
8.09 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 94

Net migration rate:
-4.44 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 190

urban population: 33.2% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 2.6% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas – population:
KHARTOUM (capital) 5.021 million (2009)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.16 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.24 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2013 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:
730 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
country comparison to the world: 9

Infant mortality rate:
total: 54.23 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 35
male: 59.75 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 48.43 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 62.95 years
country comparison to the world: 185
male: 60.93 years
female: 65.07 years (2013 est.)

Total fertility rate:
4.05 children born/woman (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39

Contraceptive prevalence rate:
9% (2010)

Health expenditures:
6.3% of GDP (2010)
country comparison to the world: 101

Physicians density:
0.28 physicians/1,000 population (2008)

Hospital bed density:
0.7 beds/1,000 population (2009)

Drinking water source:
urban: 67% of population
rural: 52% of population
total: 58% of population
urban: 33% of population
rural: 48% of population
total: 42% of population (2010 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
urban: 44% of population
rural: 14% of population
total: 26% of population
urban: 56% of population
rural: 86% of population
total: 74% of population (2010 est.)

HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate:
1.1% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44

HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS:
260,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22

HIV/AIDS – deaths:
12,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23

Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and Rift Valley fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2013)

Obesity – adult prevalence rate:
6% (2008)
country comparison to the world: 150

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
31.7% (2006)
country comparison to the world: 12

Education expenditures:

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 71.9%
male: 80.7%
female: 63.2%
note: pre-secession of South Sudan (2011 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 4 years (2000)


Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of the Sudan
conventional short form: Sudan
local long form: Jumhuriyat as-Sudan
local short form: As-Sudan
former: Anglo-Egyptian Sudan

Government type:
Federal republic ruled by the National Congress Party the (NCP), which came to power by military coup in 1989; the CPA-mandated Government of National Unity, which since 2005 provided a percentage of leadership posts to the south Sudan-based Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM), was disbanded following the secession of South Sudan.

name: Khartoum
geographic coordinates: 15 36 N, 32 32 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
17 states (wilayat, singular – wilayah); Al Bahr al Ahmar (Red Sea), Al Jazira (Gezira), Al Khartoum (Khartoum), Al Qadarif (Gedaref), An Nil al Abyad (White Nile), An Nil al Azraq (Blue Nile), Ash Shimaliyya (Northern), Gharb Darfur (Western Darfur), Janub Darfur (Southern Darfur), Janub Kurdufan (Southern Kordofan), Kassala, Nahr an Nil (River Nile), Sharq Darfur (Eastern Darfur), Shimal Darfur (Northern Darfur), Shimal Kurdufan (Northern Kordofan), Sinnar, Wasat Darfur (Central Darfur)

1 January 1956 (from Egypt and the UK)

National holiday:
Independence Day, 1 January (1956)

the Government of Sudan is in the process of drafting a new constitution to replace the Interim National Constitution ratified 5 July 2005

Legal system:
mixed legal system of Islamic law and English common law

International law organization participation:
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; withdrew acceptance of ICCt jurisdiction in 2008

17 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993); note – the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president; note – the NCP (formerly the National Islamic Front or NIF) dominates al-BASHIR’s cabinet
(For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
elections: election on 11-15 April 2010 (next to be held in 2015)
election results: Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR reelected president; percent of vote – Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR 68.2%, Yasir ARMAN 21.7%, Abdullah Deng NHIAL 3.9%, others 6.2%
note: al-BASHIR assumed power as chairman of Sudan’s Revolutionary Command Council for National Salvation (RCC) in June 1989 and served concurrently as chief of state, chairman of the RCC, prime minister, and minister of defense until mid-October 1993 when he was appointed president by the RCC; he was elected president by popular vote for the first time in March 1996

Legislative branch:
bicameral National Legislature consists of a Council of States (50 seats; members indirectly elected by state legislatures to serve six-year terms) and a National Assembly (450 seats; 60% from geographic constituencies, 25% from a women’s list, and 15% from party lists; members to serve six-year terms)
elections: last held on 11-15 April 2010 (next to be held in 2016)
election results: National Assembly – percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party – NCP 323, SPLM 99, PCP 4, DUP 4, UFP 3, URDP 2, DUPO 2, SPLM-DC 2, other 7, vacant 4; composition of National Assembly following South Sudan’s independence – seats by party – NCP 317, SPLM 8, PCP 4, DUP 4, UFP 3, URDP 2, DUPO 1, UP 1, UNP 1, UCLP 1, MB 1, independent 3, vacant 8
note: the mandate of the members from the south was terminated upon independence by the Republic of South Sudan effective 9 July 2011 and membership in Sudan’s National Assembly was reduced to 354; it is unclear whether this total will be retained for the next election or whether the previous total of 450 will be reconstituted

Judicial branch:
highest court(s): National Supreme Court (consists of 70 judges organized into panels of 3 judges; court includes 4 circuits that operate outside the capital); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 justices including the court president); note – the Constitutional Court resides outside the national judiciary
judge selection and term of office: National Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president of the republic upon the recommendation of the National Judicial Service Commission, an independent body chaired by the chief justice of the republic and members including other judges and judicial and legal officials; Supreme Court judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed for 7 years
subordinate courts: National Court of Appeals; other national courts (not specified in the 2005 Interim National Constitution as to national or local authority); township and rural (peoples’) courts

Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Unionist Party or DUP [Hatim al-SIR] Democratic Unionist Party-Original or DUPO
Muslim Brotherhood or MB
National Congress Party or NCP [Umar Hassan al-BASHIR] Popular Congress Party or PCP [Hassan al-TURABI] Sudan People’s Liberation Movement or SPLM
Sudan People’s Liberation Movement for Democratic Change or SPLM-DC [Lam AKOL Ajawin] Umma Party or UP
Umma Federal Party or UFP
Umma National Party or UNP
Umma Reform and Development Party or URDP
Umma Collective Leadership Party or UCLP

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Umma Party [SADIQ Siddiq al-Mahdi] Popular Congress Party or PCP [Hassan al-TURABI] Democratic Unionist Party [Muhammad Uthman al-MIRGHANI] Darfur rebel groups including the Justice and Equality Movement or JEM [Jabril IBRAHIM and other factional leaders] and the Sudan Liberation Movement or SLM [various factional leaders]

International organization participation:

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d’Affaires Elhafiz Eisa Abdulla ADAM
chancery: 2210 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 338-8565
FAX: [1] (202) 667-2406

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d’Affaires Joseph D. STAFFORD, III
embassy: Sharia Ali Abdul Latif Street, Khartoum
mailing address: P.O. Box 699, Kilo 10, Soba, Khartoum; APO AE 09829
telephone: [249] (187)-0-(22000)
FAX: [249] (183) 774-137

Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with a green isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; colors and design based on the Arab Revolt flag of World War I, but the meanings of the colors are expressed as follows: red signifies the struggle for freedom, white is the color of peace, light, and love, black represents Sudan itself (in Arabic ‘Sudan’ means black), green is the color of Islam, agriculture, and prosperity

National symbol(s):
secretary bird

National anthem:
name: “Nahnu Djundulla Djundulwatan” (We Are the Army of God and of Our Land)
lyrics/music: Sayed Ahmad Muhammad SALIH/Ahmad MURJAN
note: adopted 1956; the song originally served as the anthem of the Sudanese military


Economy – overview:
Sudan is an extremely poor country that has had to deal with social conflict, civil war, and the July 2011 secession of South Sudan – the region of the country that had been responsible for about three-fourths of the former Sudan’s total oil production. The oil sector had driven much of Sudan’s GDP growth since it began exporting oil in 1999. For nearly a decade, the economy boomed on the back of increases in oil production, high oil prices, and significant inflows of foreign direct investment. Following South Sudan”s secession, Sudan has struggled to maintain economic stability, because oil earnings now provide a far lower share of the country”s need for hard currency and for budget revenues. Sudan is attempting to generate new sources of revenues, such as from gold mining, while carrying out an austerity program to reduce expenditures. Agricultural production continues to employ 80% of the work force. Sudan introduced a new currency, still called the Sudanese pound, following South Sudan”s secession, but the value of the currency has fallen since its introduction. Khartoum formally devalued the currency in June 2012, when it passed austerity measures that included gradually repealing fuel subsidies. Sudan also faces rising inflation, which reached 47% on an annual basis in November 2012. Ongoing conflicts in Southern Kordofan, Darfur, and the Blue Nile states, lack of basic infrastructure in large areas, and reliance by much of the population on subsistence agriculture ensure that much of the population will remain at or below the poverty line for years to come.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$86.67 billion (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 78
$90.66 billion (2011 est.)
$92.4 billion (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$59.94 billion (2012 est.)

GDP – real growth rate:
-4.4% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 216
-1.9% (2011 est.)
2.5% (2010 est.)

GDP – per capita (PPP):
$2,600 (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 182
$2,800 (2011 est.)
$2,300 (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

Gross national saving:
24.2% of GDP (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
28.6% of GDP (2011 est.)
26.7% of GDP (2010 est.)

GDP – composition, by end use:
household consumption: 65.1%
government consumption: 10.9%
investment in fixed capital: 27.2%
investment in inventories: 3.3%
exports of goods and services: 7%
imports of goods and services: -13.4%
(2012 est.)

GDP – composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 27.6%
industry: 22.1%
services: 50.2% (2012 est.)

Agriculture – products:
cotton, groundnuts (peanuts), sorghum, millet, wheat, gum arabic, sugarcane, cassava (tapioca), mangoes, papaya, bananas, sweet potatoes, sesame; sheep and other livestock

oil, cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap distilling, shoes, petroleum refining, pharmaceuticals, armaments, automobile/light truck assembly

Industrial production growth rate:
-28.9% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 171

Labor force:
11.92 million (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45

Labor force – by occupation:
agriculture: 80%
industry: 7%
services: 13% (1998 est.)

Unemployment rate:
20% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 162
18.7% (2002 est.)

Population below poverty line:
46.5% (2009 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.7%
highest 10%: 26.7% (2009 est.)

revenues: $3.934 billion
expenditures: $7.627 billion (2012 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
6.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 213

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-6.2% of GDP (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 181

Public debt:
106.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14
96.2% of GDP (2011 est.)

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
31.9% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 221
18% (2011 est.)

Stock of narrow money:
$5.853 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 91
$9.272 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of broad money:
$12.83 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95
$15.6 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$8.591 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107
$14.63 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:

Current account balance:
-$3.575 billion (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 153
$208.1 million (2011 est.)

$4.59 billion (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115
$9.694 billion (2011 est.)

Exports – commodities:
gold; oil and petroleum products; cotton, sesame, livestock, groundnuts, gum arabic, sugar

Exports – partners:
UAE 63.2%, Saudi Arabia 9.2%, Ethiopia 5.3% (2012)

$6.217 billion (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 119
$8.205 billion (2011 est.)

Imports – commodities:
foodstuffs, manufactured goods, refinery and transport equipment, medicines and chemicals, textiles, wheat

Imports – partners:
Macau 18%, India 8.8%, Saudi Arabia 7.9%, Egypt 6.7%, UAE 5.2% (2012)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$297.9 million (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 154
$295 million (31 December 2011 est.)

Debt – external:
$39.63 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66
$38.63 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Exchange rates:
Sudanese pounds (SDG) per US dollar –
4.09 (2012 est.)
2.68 (2011 est.)
2.31 (2010 est.)
2.3 (2009)
2.1 (2008)


Electricity – production:
6.509 billion kWh (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107

Electricity – consumption:
4.611 billion kWh (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 117

Electricity – exports:
0 kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 132

Electricity – imports:
0 kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 135

Electricity – installed generating capacity:
2.338 million kW (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96

Electricity – from fossil fuels:
30.7% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 178

Electricity – from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 179

Electricity – from hydroelectric plants:
66.3% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26

Electricity – from other renewable sources:
3% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47

Crude oil – production:
120,000 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47

Crude oil – exports:
370,700 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22

Crude oil – imports:
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 123

Crude oil – proved reserves:
5 billion bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24

Refined petroleum products – production:
85,890 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77

Refined petroleum products – consumption:
95,450 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80

Refined petroleum products – exports:
14,950 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81

Refined petroleum products – imports:
24,820 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 93

Natural gas – production:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 192

Natural gas – consumption:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 195

Natural gas – exports:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 182

Natural gas – imports:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131

Natural gas – proved reserves:
84.95 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 59

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
13.79 million Mt (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 91


Telephones – main lines in use:
483,600 (2011)
country comparison to the world: 100

Telephones – mobile cellular:
25.056 million (2011)
country comparison to the world: 42

Telephone system:
general assessment: well-equipped system by regional standards and being upgraded; cellular communications started in 1996 and have expanded substantially with wide coverage of most major cities
domestic: consists of microwave radio relay, cable, fiber optic, radiotelephone communications, tropospheric scatter, and a domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations
international: country code – 249; linked to the EASSy and FLAG fiber-optic submarine cable systems; satellite
earth stations – 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Arabsat (2010)

Broadcast media:
the Sudanese Government directly controls TV and radio, requiring that both media reflect government policies; TV has a permanent military censor; a private radio station is in operation (2007)

Internet country code:

Internet hosts:
99 (2012)
country comparison to the world: 210

Internet users:
4.2 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 56


74 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 70

Airports – with paved runways:
total: 16
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
under 914 m: 2 (2013)

Airports – with unpaved runways:
total: 58
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 17
914 to 1,523 m: 28
under 914 m:
12 (2013)

6 (2013)

gas 156 km; oil 4,070 km; refined products 1,613 km (2013)

total: 5,978 km
country comparison to the world: 30
narrow gauge: 4,578 km 1.067-m gauge; 1,400 km 0.600-m gauge for cotton plantations (2008)

total: 11,900 km
country comparison to the world: 130
paved: 4,320 km
unpaved: 7,580 km (2000)

4,068 km (1,723 km open year round on White and Blue Nile rivers) (2011)
country comparison to the world: 25

Merchant marine:
total: 2
country comparison to the world: 140
by type: cargo 2 (2010)

Ports and terminals:
Port Sudan


Military branches:
Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF): Land Forces, Navy (includes Marines), Sudanese Air Force (Sikakh al-Jawwiya as-Sudaniya), Popular Defense Forces (2011)

Military service age and obligation:
18-33 years of age for male and female compulsory or voluntary military service; 1-2 year service obligation; a requirement that completion of national service was mandatory before entering public or private sector employment has been cancelled (2012)

Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 10,433,973
females age 16-49: 10,411,443 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 6,475,530
females age 16-49: 6,840,885 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 532,030
female: 512,476 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:
4.2% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 24

Transnational Issues

Disputes – international:
the effects of Sudan’s almost constant ethnic and rebel militia fighting since the mid-20th century have penetrated all of the neighboring states; Chad wishes to be a helpful mediator in resolving the Darfur conflict, and in 2010 established a joint border monitoring force with Sudan, which has helped to reduce cross-border banditry and violence; as of 2006, Chad, Ethiopia, Kenya, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Uganda provided shelter for over a half million Sudanese refugees, which include 240,000 Darfur residents driven from their homes by Janjawid armed militia and Sudanese military forces; as of January 2011, Sudan, in turn, hosted about 138,700 Eritreans, 43,000 Chadians, and smaller numbers of Ethiopians; Sudan accuses Eritrea of supporting Sudanese rebel groups; efforts to demarcate the porous boundary with Ethiopia proceed slowly due to civil and ethnic fighting in eastern Sudan; Sudan claims but Egypt de facto administers security and economic development of Halaib region north of the 22nd parallel boundary; periodic violent skirmishes with Sudanese residents over water and grazing rights persist among related pastoral populations along the border with the Central African Republic; South Sudan-Sudan boundary represents 1 January 1956 alignment, final alignment pending negotiations and demarcation; final sovereignty status of Abyei Area pending negotiations between South Sudan and Sudan

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 112,283 (Eritrea); 32,220 (Chad) (2012)
IDPs: more than 2.4 million (civil war 1983-2005; ongoing conflict in Darfur region; government and rebel fighting along South Sudan border) (2011)

Trafficking in persons:
current situation: Sudan is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children who are subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; Sudanese women and girls, particularly those from rural areas or who are internally displaced, are vulnerable to forced labor as domestic workers in homes throughout the country; some of these women and girls are subsequently sexually abused by male occupants of the household or forced to engage in commercial sex acts; Sudanese women and girls are subjected to domestic servitude in Middle Eastern countries and to forced sex trafficking in European countries; some Sudanese men who voluntarily migrate to the Middle East as low-skilled laborers face conditions indicative of forced labor; Sudanese children in Saudi Arabia are used in forced begging and street vending; Sudan is a transit and destination country for Ethiopian and Eritrean women subjected to domestic servitude in Sudan and Middle Eastern countries; Sudan is a destination for Ethiopian, Somali, and possibly Thai women subjected to forced prostitution; Sudanese children in Darfur are forcibly conscripted, at times through abduction, and used by armed groups and government security forces
tier rating: Tier 3 – Sudan does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; while the government has taken some initial steps to draft anti-trafficking legislation, prosecute suspected traffickers, demobilize and reintegrate child soldiers, and has convened its first workshop to discuss human trafficking, its efforts to combat human trafficking through law enforcement, protection, or prevention measures are undertaken in an ad hoc fashion, rather than as the result of strategic planning; the government has not employed a system for proactively identifying trafficking victims among vulnerable populations or a referral process for transferring victims to organizations providing care; its proxy militias reportedly unlawfully recruited and used child soldiers during the reporting period; the government has not taken action to conclude a proposed action plan with the UN to address the problem (2013)

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